What is P2 HD?
P2 HD is a full production-quality, high-definition recording system that utilizes removable solid-state memory cards. This approach eliminates the mechanical wear and environmental limitations of tape, hard disk and optical-disc-based systems. P2 HD ensures the highest reliability, especially in challenging conditions of extreme temperature, shock and vibration. P2 HD products provide a significant reduction in maintenance costs, longer useful product life and immediate access to recorded video (no need to digitize, ingest or create proxy video files) and metadata. Compatible with PCs and existing file-based IT infrastructures, P2 HD content is recorded as independent frames, can be randomly accessed and easily transferred to, or archived onto, low-cost consumer media such as hard drives or other affordable current IT storage technology and future-based systems. P2 HD systems offer long record times and can be upgraded with higher capacity cards.
How does P2 record?
P2 cards record the same way that digital still cameras record onto memory cards — they store the footage as pre-digitized computer files. Instead of recording the video as “video data,” they record the footage as computer data files. These files are instantly editable and can be transferred to other computer storage media directly, without the restrictions of needing proprietary video decks or having to wait for real-time transfers. In fact, you can edit footage directly from a P2 card, without having to transfer to a computer at all. Because P2 cards record in universally interchangeable MXF data files, they are immediately usable by properly configured Windows and Macintosh computers. The P2 cards eliminate the need for VTRs, eliminate the need for proprietary video hardware to read or transfer their contents, and eliminate the need to “capture” or “digitize” your footage.

As for the actual recordings themselves, P2 cards record footage in the MXF (Material eXchange Format), a SMPTE-codified cross-platform universal file format. The MXF files use operational pattern OP-Atom, which means that each element of the footage (the audio tracks, the video footage, an “icon” or thumbnail and the descriptive metadata) gets stored in its own sub-directories. The MXF file format is supported by nearly every major nonlinear editing program, while file conversion utilities exist to convert MXF files into other types of files, if needed.

The P2 card itself uses the FAT32 file system, which makes the card compatible with both Macintosh and Windows systems.
What is DRS (Dynamic Range Stretch)? When should I use this tool?
DRS (Dynamic Range Stretch) is a fully automated dynamic range expansion tool that will compress highlight information, and boost shadow detail. It happens simultaneously, on a sector by sector basis - in realtime - at the push of a button. It is a great tool to use in “Run-and-Gun” situations where controlling lighting and dynamic range is very difficult. Daytime exteriors with rapidly changing conditions are a prime target for this tool. DRS should be avoided when you have all of the right tools (Lighting, Grip) to control and carve out a specific look. Its automated functionality will quickly conflict with your abilities to predict and create a consistent specific look for your scenes (adding shadow detail where you intentionally tried to omit it). This functionality is available on select cameras, including the AJ-HPX2700, and the AJ-HPX3100.
Which codec should I choose? AVC-Intra 100 or DVCPRO HD? What about AVC-Intra 50?
If QUALITY is the defining factor, always shoot in AVC-Intra 100, as long as your Post Production facility is equipped to handle that codec. If CONTENT is more important, and achieving extended record times and bandwidth efficiencies rank higher than absolute picture quality, then AVC-Intra 50 should be explored. DVCPRO HD is a good option for those unable to shoot in the AVC-Intra Codec because of legacy post production issues, but it is an 8 bit Codec, which is inferior to AVC-Intra 100’s 10 bit Mastering Quality Codec.
What do the various GAMMA MODES represent? What's the difference between HD, VIDEO-REC, FILMLIKE and FILMREC?
GAMMA Mode selection is akin to picking a film stock for your camera. The GAMMA curve you select will determine the video signal output generated by the camera, for varying degrees of luminance input. HD, VIDEO-REC, and FILMLIKE 1 & 2, are fairly punchy, and contrasty curves that are ideally suited for live broadcast applications (News, Sports, Reality/Contest shows,etc...). They are “Air-Ready” and don't require any post processing to achieve full dynamic levels (0% black to 100% white). FILMLIKE 3 and FILM-REC, provide a wider dynamic range and latitude to the camera as well as a more linear transfer curve, but usually at the cost of a flatter, less punchy image, that needs to be Color Corrected in Post. This setting is ideal for applications that already follow this type of workflow, such as Narrative Features, Episodic Television, Music Videos and Commercials.
P2 Card
What's inside a P2 Card?
P2 cards are high-precision micro-computers with their own processors, firmware, a RAID controller, and gigabytes of the highest-quality zero-fault solid-state memory chips. A P2 card is an intelligent device that manages the data files — and even does a write-verification step for every byte of memory that gets written to the card (thus assuring fault-free operation). Early P2 cards were manufactured using actual SD memory cards in a striped RAID array, thus increasing the performance far beyond any individual memory chip's speed. The newest generation of P2 cards dispenses with using individual SD memory cards and actually uses the core memory components.
What sizes of P2 Cards are available?
P2 card are offered in 16GB, 32GB and 64GB sizes.
Whats the recording capacity of P2 Cards?
To establish a P2 card's recording time, you have to determine two factors: what recording format you will use and what capacity of P2 card you're planning on using. The calculation is quite simple after that.
  • For DVCPRO or DV, the data rate is 4 minutes per gigabyte
  • For DVCPRO50 or AVC-Intra 50, the data rate is 2 minutes per gigabyte
  • For DVCPRO HD or AVC Intra 100, the data rate is 1 minute per gigabyte
A 32GB P2 card is capable of storing more than two hours of DVCPRO footage (32 gigabytes × 4 minutes per GB), more than one hour of DVCPRO50 (32 GB × 2 minutes per GB), or 32 minutes of AVC-Intra 100 or DVCPRO-HD.

Please note, even more storage capacity is available in DVCPRO-HD 720P and AVC-Intra 720P and 1080P modes. Please review the P2 HD FAQs document [pdf] for further information.
What is the transfer speed of the P2 Card?
Today’s E-Series P2 cards are capable of a transfer rate of 1.2 Gbps. This makes it fast enough to ooffload a 16GB P2 card with at least 16 minutes of DVCPRO-HD or AVC-Intra content in under 2 mintues, or, an 8 to 1 ratio. Please note, many P2 formats and frame rates offer more storage per card. For example, when shooting 1080/23.98p AVC-Inra 100, a 16GB E Series card will hold up to 22 minutes of content. This means that youcan offload these 22 minutes in under 2 minutes, or, an 11 to 1 offload ratio. E Series P2 cards are super fast. Even first generation P2 cards, with a 640 Mbps offload speed or second generation A Sires P2 cards (with an 800 Mbps offload speed) have the ability to offload at a slighter higher speed, through the use of the Panasonic AJ-PCD35 P2 Drive. As always, transfer speeds of IT storage device are subject to hardware configurations.

And, because there are no moving parts and no read/write heads to move or reposition, there’s no “seek time” – switching from one stream to the next is instantaneous. Because of the high-speed design of P2 cards, they can be used as an edit media. In other words, there's no requirement to transfer the footage off of the cards before editing: you can actually edit immediately right from the cards.
Can I put 1080I and 720P AND/OR standard definition footage on the same P2 card?
Yes, you can freely inter-mix any type of footage. You can put high-definition and standard-definition, 625 (PAL) and 525 (NTSC), DVCPRO and AVC-Intra, interlaced or progressive or variable-frame-rate footage, or any combination of formats and frame rates all on the same P2 card. Remember, P2 cards are treated by the system as removable storage devices – they don't care what type of information gets stored on them. This gives you an unprecedented amount of freedom and flexibility to work with any format or media as you see fit.
Can a P2 card be used in all P2 HD and P2 camcorders, recorders and drives?
Yes, the P2 card is interchangeable across the entire P2 HD/P2 lineup of products. Any P2 card can be used in any P2-compatible device. This gives you immediate interchangeability, upgradeability and compatibility with the massive installed base of P2 equipment. Additionally, because P2 cards were deliberately over-engineered to exceed the needs of today's equipment, they can support future formats, as well. There's no need to change out or upgrade your hardware when a new format comes along, as your same P2 cards and P2 readers will work. As a case study, when the P2 HD system was first introduced, it included the option to use 720p or 1080p/i DVCPRO HD. Now Panasonic has introduced the new AVC-Intra format. With the introduction of AVC-Intra, all the same P2 cards and P2 readers work immediately with the new format. No longer do you have to replace a whole rack of proprietary video hardware just to be able to take advantage of advances in recording formats. P2 is designed to accommodate today’s formats, as well as tomorrow’s.
Can I record to a P2 card and an external disk drive, such as a FireStore, at the same time?
Yes, every P2 HD camcorder allows for simultaneous recording to its internal P2 cards as well as to an external recorder attached by HD-SDi or 1394 (aka “firewire”). For example, you can connect the Panasonic P2 Mobile (HPM200/110/100) and record HD-SDI. Or, if desired, you can record on the AG-HPG20 P2 Portable or AG-HPG10 P2 Gear. In addition, the VariCam 3700 offer dual-link RGB 4:4:4 outputs. This signal can be recorded by 3rd party recorders, including those by S-Two, Codex and KG (Keisoku Giken).

1394 (aka “firewire”) recording is possible in DV, DVCPRO, DVCPRO50 or DVCPRO HD formats. There are, however, a couple of exceptions due to the nature of external recording units and the 1394/firewire transport protocol. If recording using AVC-Intra, AVC-Intra doesn’t travel across the 1394 port and so a FireStore would not be capable of recording that mode. Also, when using the special space-saving 720pN mode, firewire transport is disabled so a FireStore or other 1394 recording device could not be used for simultaneous recording when in DVCPRO-HD 720pN mode.

Please note, the need to record to firewire devices has lessened in recent years, because P2 card capability has increased from 4GB to 64GB, and most P2 cameras support up to 5 P2 cards. The increased capacity and additional P2 card slots have lessened the need for 3rd party recorders (except for special situations like 4:4:4 recording)
Are there third-party companies making P2 cards?
Yes. Panasonic has a long history of third-party support for its recording media. For example, Fuji Film recently announced it will introduce a series of P2-compatible solid-state memory cards in spring 2008.
P2 Workflow
How can I copy, backup or archive my P2 material?
Keep in mind that P2 cards are storage devices for computer data. Because of that, you can use any computer and any storage device that you would use for any other computer data. There’s nothing special to the process; there’s nothing proprietary. If you’ve ever made a backup of your computer’s hard disk, you already know everything you need to know to back up or archive a P2 card’s contents.

For data management and copying the P2 card contents, Panasonic makes available the P2 Contents Management System (also known as “P2CMS”). This free software utility organizes your P2 footage into an easily managed database and gives you the ability to rename and annotate clips and enter all sorts of descriptive metadata. P2CMS also provides the ability to copy P2 card contents to a hard disk or a P2 card.

With P2 cards, you’re just working with computer data. To archive, you can use any commercially available, off-the-shelf archival method, including DVD-R, Blu-Ray data discs, or computer tape archive systems such as DLT or LTO2/LTO3/LTO4. Some companies make archival systems designed specifically to work with MXF files (such as those found on P2 cards). An example would be the Quantum SDLT-600A DLT tape drive, which is optimized for working with MXF files, or the newer version Cache-A. In addition, 3rd party software, such as Imagine Shot Put Pro can help with this process.
How do my P2 cards show up on my MAC desktop?
On a Macintosh computer, a P2 card pops up on your desktop with a distinctive P2 icon or, on earlier versions of the Macintosh operating system, it'll show up as a generic storage icon. On the Macintosh operating system, the P2 card will have a name of “No Name.” If you explore the contents of the P2 card, you'll see that it operates just like any storage volume, such as a hard disk – you can explore the contents, copy files and delete files. Panasonic has provided the ability to copy or delete of clips for free using our P2CMS Contents Management Software.

In addition, leading software development companies like Imagine Products offer programs like P2 Log Pro or HD Log for purchase, and a user can also utilize his NLE browser for the same functionality.
How do I get the video to play from the hard drive so I can review the material or copy to a videotape?
You can use your P2-compliant NLE system, or when not using an NLE system, Panasonic’s P2CMS software includes a free viewing application for both the Macintosh and Windows systems. You can simply open a clip in the P2CMS application (or, on Windows, you can also use the P2 Viewer application). You can view clips in a small window or full-screen and you can view clips directly from the P2 cards or you can view them from folders on your hard disk (also known as “virtual cards”). However, playback performance is dependent upon the speed and power of your computer hardware, of course.

Please note, the AJ-HPM200 P2 Mobile offers full frame rate playback of P2 content from an E-Sata or USB disk drive (drive speeds may very). In addition, the AG-HPG20 P2 Portable allows the playback of P2 MXF content from a disk drive. Please note this is ¼ frame rate HD, but, perfect for QC applications.
What software do I need to view P2 material on my PC? On my MAC?
Panasonic offers free viewing and data management software, the P2 Contents Management System, for both Windows and Macintosh platforms and P2 Viewer for the PC.

You can also use virtually all of the popular nonlinear editing software applications to view P2 footage on your computer.
Can I write back to my P2 card?
Yes, on Windows systems the P2 card is treated just like any other removable storage device: you can format it, copy files off of it or copy files to it, at will. In addition, P2-compliant NLE systems also allow you to write back to the card. You can also use the P2 Contents Management System software to copy entire clips or groups of clips onto or off of your card.

The Macintosh operating system won’t let you copy files to a P2 card from the Finder. However, you can use P2CMS to copy files to the card. In addition, Raylight for MAC software allows you to write back to a MAC.

In April 2010, Panasonic offered a FREE QuickTime to AVC-Intra encoder plug-in for Apple Compressor. This allowed Final Cut Pro users to export their project timelines and/or clips as AVC-Intra files. This is a great workflow and enables collaboration between multiple NLE platforms.

For more information or to download, please visit: https://eww.pass.panasonic.co.jp/pro-av/support/desk/e/download.htm#encoder
What nonlinear editing systems and servers support AVC-INTRA and P2?
Virtually every popular nonlinear editing system works with P2 Footage, and many now work natively in AVC-Intra including:
  • Apple Final Cut Pro 7 and later
  • Adobe Premiere Pro CS3 version 3.1 and later
  • Newtek Speed Edit
  • Grass Valley EDIUS Broadcast
  • Avid XPress Pro HD 5.2.3 or later
  • Avid Liquid 7.2 or later
  • Avid Media Composer
  • Avid NewsCutter
  • Avid Unity
  • Quantel
  • Grass Valley News Edit
  • Leitch Nexio Server
  • Leitch DPS NLE
Please check with your NLE supplier for current capabilities.

In addition, if your chosen editing application isn’t on the list above, a third-party application may enable you to be able to use P2 footage. For example, Vegas users and Premiere Pro users can use P2 footage if they use the Raylight plug-in from www.dvfilm.com/raylight.
When I view thumbnail clips from my P2 card, I often see a letter, color or punctuation mark such as an exclamation point, please explain what these are and what they mean?
There are several possible descriptive or explanatory icons that can show up on a P2 file's icon, including:

M – This means this particular clip has a “shot mark” on it; you (or someone) have “marked” this clip as being “good.”

P – This means this particular clip has a proxy file attached to it. Proxies can be generated by some of the P2 cameras if the optional AJ-YAX800G Proxy Card is installed. The HPX500 and HVX200 cannot generate proxy files.

T – This means this particular clip has at least one Text Memo marker attached to it. You can view the contents of the Text Memos in P2 Viewer, P2CMS or in a P2HD camcorder by selecting CLIP PROPERTIES for this clip.

E – This means that this particular clip is not camera-original footage, but was either edited on a computer or was created by copying a previous clip. A clip that was created by exporting a portion of a clip between two Text Memo markers (known as Text Memo Subclipping) would also bear this “E” mark.

W – This shows up for standard-definition clips that were recorded in the 16:9 aspect ratio. The “W” stands for Widescreen. This “W” mark doesn't show up on high-definition clips because all high-definition clips are always 16:9.

! – This indicates that the clip you're viewing is part of a multiple-clip “spanned clip,” and that the remaining portions aren't currently present. For example, if you recorded one big long clip that spanned across two P2 cards, yet you only loaded one P2 card into your computer, this ! indication would be displayed to let you know that the system only has access to part of the full footage. If you loaded the P2 card that contains the rest of this clip, the ! indicator would disappear.

X – This indicator means that there's something wrong with your clip. If the “X” appears with a yellow background, you can usually repair the clip (using the “Repair Clip” function in the P2 Thumbnail menu). Usually this X will show up if you eject a P2 card while that card is being recorded to or if the power goes off (battery dies or AC power goes out) while recording. The P2 system is prepared for such issues and automatically saves the recorded files every two seconds, so if an interruption does occur you will usually only lose a few frames (up to the last two seconds). However, if you see a red X, that clip is damaged beyond repair and should be deleted.

? – This indicator means that the system cannot recognize your clip. This might happen if Panasonic introduces a new format, and your existing camera was made before that format was created (for example, if you put a P2 card with an AVC-Intra clip into a AJ-SPX800 camcorder, the SPX800 wouldn't understand what the AVC-Intra clip was and would, therefore, display the ? indicator). This doesn't necessarily mean there's anything wrong with your clip, just that your camcorder doesn't understand that clip (a more up-to-date camcorder probably would).
Can I use IEEE 1394 (Firewire) mode with AVC-Intra?
Not for live footage streaming; AVC-Intra is not supported over IEEE 1394 (Firewire) as a live data stream.
I heard that some P2 HD Camcorders have USB or 1394 host mode. What is it and how does it work? What's the difference between these two modes?
The Host Mode allows the P2HD camcorder (or P2HD field recorder such as the P2 Gear or P2 Mobile) to take direct control of an external hard disk. Using Host Mode, you can plug a hard disk directly into your camcorder (or field recorder) and format the hard disk and copy the contents of your P2 cards directly onto the hard disk, all without using a computer.

The AG-HVX200 and AG-HPX500 P2HD camcorder support 1394 Host Mode, and the AJ-HPX3000, AJ-HPX2000, AH-HPG10 P2 Gear and AJ-HPM100 P2 Mobile support USB Host Mode. In 1394 Host Mode, you need to connect to a 1394 (“firewire”) hard disk, and you can then copy up to 15 cards onto the hard disk. 1394 Host Mode does not supply bus power, so you'll need a self-powered hard disk.

USB Host Mode provides even more capability. With USB Host Mode, the P2 HD camcorders (HPX2000 or HPX3000) or field recorder can supply bus power to power the hard disk. You can copy up to 23 cards onto the hard drive, assign individual names, partition the drive and review thumbnails.
Does P2 HD support proxies?
Yes, the P2 HD system supports the creation and management of proxy files in three bit rates -- 192Kbps, 768Kbps or 1.5Mbps. Proxy information is low-resolution A/V and time code that is recorded via the optional AJ-YAX800 MPEG4 encoder simultaneously with the high-resolution (DVCPROHD /50/25) that is being recorded to the same P2 card. Proxy video can be recorded to both the P2 card, as well as a separate SD memory card, which allows for quick movement of low-resolution files through internal and web-based networks for quick logging and viewing of dailies or footage before it arrives at the local station. Not all P2 HD camcorders can create or play proxy files; only cameras that can accept the optional AJ-YAX800G proxy card can create or play back proxy files. This includes all AJ-series P2HD camcorders, but doesn't include the AG-HVX200 or AG-HPX500.
What type of metadata files does P2 HD support? Can I customize this metadata for my application?
All P2 camcorders record video with some standard metadata fields, including individual camera type, camera serial number and unique user clip ID. In addition, P2 supports 30 user-definable metadata files, including shooter, reporter, location, scene, text memo and GPS coordinates.

The metadata can be uploaded to the camera after first being composed on the computer. This is done using the free P2 Viewer and P2CMS applications, as well as by the TEP-HD and P2 Log family of products from Imagine Software. The metadata is then saved onto an SD card and inserted into the camera where it can be uploaded into the camera using the metadata upload function under the Thumbnail menu. All P2 cameras allow for incrementing the User Clip Name if you have the camera under the Metadata Type 2 operation. This is also in the Metadata menu in the Thumbnail mode.
What is chromatic aberration compensation (CAC) and what does it do?
Chromatic aberration correction (CAC) can correct chromatic aberrations (color fringing) introduced by the lens optics. Chromatic aberrations are caused when the red, green and blue images do not match up exactly at all points in the image. A camera/lens pair, capable of CAC operation can introduce appropriate offsets to better match red, green and blue images, thus reducing or eliminating any color fringing. Chromatic aberrations are normally only observed at the extreme positions of focus and zoom, with the iris wide open.

CAC will only work when both the camera and lens support the feature. The camera needs to have an offset look-up table stored in memory, and the lens and camera must be able to communicate for CAC to operate properly. Select P2 HD camcorder, including the AG-HPX300, AG-HPX370, AG-HPX500, AJ-HPX3000, VariCam 2700 and VariCam 3700 support CAC, using compatible Canon and Fujinon EFP-style zoom lenses.

As more affordable HD lenses have been designed, CAC has been helpful in reducing chromatic aberrations, which tends to be the most objectionable potential flaw in more affordable lens designs. With CAC, the performance of lower cost lenses approaches that of the top-of-the-line models in terms of color fringing. With the unprecedented resolution of the AJ-HPX3000 and the VariCam 3700, chromatic aberrations can be observed that would not have been visible in earlier cameras (particularly after recording). CAC has shown an effective improvement to the performance of some of the best quality HD zoom lenses on the market. A full list of available CAC lenses can be viewed here.
Do all lenses support CAC?
No, CAC has to be specifically added to each particular lens. Canon and Fujinon each provide a family of CAC lenses, and you can expect that the number of lenses offered in CAC versions will grow.

A list of available CAC lenses can be viewed here.
Where do I go to get the update firmware or software drivers for my P2/P2 HD product?
Panasonic USA has a user-friendly “front end” website for finding the newest and most up-to-date driver software at https://eww.pass.panasonic.co.jp/pro-av/support/desk/e/download.htm
Working in Native Mode
What is 24pn mode?
24PN mode is a special space-saving recording mode designed specifically for use with P2 cards. There is absolutely no loss in quality when using 24PN mode; it's the exact same information, just stored in a more space-efficient way.

Normally, DVCPRO HD 720P is stored at 60 frames per second, and 24P footage is “embedded” in a 60P data stream using 2:3 pull-down. This is a time-tested technique for enabling a “film look” within a normal broadcast data stream. P2 HD camcorders support recording 24P within a 60P data stream. However, when recording to the P2 card, it's not necessary to record the full 60P data stream; instead it's possible to record just the 24 frames you'll need. This is called 24PN mode (N = “native,” meaning a mode that's native to the P2 card). Storing only 24 frames instead of 60 results in 2.5X as much footage being able to be stored on any given card.

The camcorder or playback device will automatically take care of inserting the 24PN data stream back into a 60P data stream using 2:3 pull-down upon playback, if necessary. This means that 24PN recordings are fully capable of being displayed on any conventional HD monitor without needing special conversion hardware.

In short, if recording 24P footage to a P2 card, 24PN mode gives you 2.5 times as much recording time with no quality loss.

24PN mode is also useful for using overcranking and undercranking. When using 24PN mode, any off-speed frame rates are automatically compensated for and accounted for when recording; this means that no Frame Rate Conversion process or utility is needed to work with 24PN footage that's been recorded at variable frame rates. When recording 24PN footage at, say, 48 frames per second, you will immediately be able to play back the footage in slow motion, right in camera, without needing any external hardware or software utilities to “process” the footage and remove pull-down or any other process.
Can I record audio in 24pn mode?
Yes, audio gets recorded when you record at 24fps. If you switch to variable frame rates in 24PN mode, no audio is recorded. The 24PN mode mimics the behavior of a film camera, and normally sound is only recorded when filming at 24fps; any slow-motion or fast-motion effects are recorded without sound. The P2 HD camcorders mimic this behavior, disabling sound recording when shooting off-speed frame rates.

If you absolutely have to have audio recorded while recording off-speed frame rates, you can switch to the 720/24P mode (instead of the 720/24PN mode) to record that footage. 720/24P mode will always record sound, regardless of your frame rate. However, to access the slow-motion or fast-motion footage, you would have to process your 720/24P mode footage through a Frame Rate Converter or software utility.
Does 24pn have a IEEE (Firmware) mode?
No, 24PN (and 30PN) modes do not transmit data over the IEEE 1394 (“firewire”) interface. The P2 HD camcorders only transmit SMPTE-compliant data streams over the 1394 interface, and 24PN/30PN recordings are unique modes that do not comply to established streaming protocols. Accordingly, 1394 output is disabled when using a Native mode.
Are there other native modes?
Yes, there's also 30PN and 25PN mode. They work exactly like 24PN mode, except at 30 or 25fps instead of 24fps.
Are there native modes in AVC-Intra?
Yes, AVC-Intra provides the same 24PN, 25PN and 30PN modes in 720P footage. It also provides a new 1080/24, 25 and 30PN mode on applicable P2 HD products. For example, when using 1080p/24, you get 20% more capacity on a P2 card. DVCPRO HD does not provide an option for 1080/24PN.
How can I overcrank and undercrank my footage?
First, let's explore the terms “overcrank” and “undercrank” – what we're really talking about is slow-motion and fast-motion footage. (In the old days, cinematographers used to actually hand-crank the film through the camera, so cranking faster than normal was called “overcranking” and cranking slower than normal was called “undercranking.”) When using variable frame rates for slow motion or fast motion, you need to understand that the rate of playback is constant (i.e., your footage will always be played back at 24fps) so what changes is the rate of acquisition. If you acquire 48fps, but you play it back at 24fps, that means it'll take two seconds to play back the footage that it took you only one second to acquire. That means you'll be seeing slow motion at a rate of 2:1. When you select 24PN or 30PN, what you're really selecting is the speed of playback of your footage. If you choose 24PN, you're instructing the system to play the recorded footage back at a rate of 24fps (regardless of the frame rate that you acquire the footage at!) This can lead to slow-motion or fast-motion effects. For example, if you choose the 24PN recording mode, but choose a frame rate of 30fps, your resulting footage will have a slight (25%) slow motion effect (and no sound will be recorded). On the other hand, if you choose 30PN mode and record at 30fps, your footage won't be slow-motion; it'll be real-time (and sound will be recorded). The frame rate you choose to shoot at is individually selectable separately from the frame rate at which your footage will play back. You have a choice of two frame rates for your footage to be played back at, 24fps (in 24PN mode) or 30fps (in 30PN mode).


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