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Basic knowledge Basic knowledge

How do I read the symbols on batteries?

For example, LR means round alkaline battery, while CR means round lithium battery. The first letter denotes the type of battery, while the second denotes the shape (R meaning round). If you know what these codes mean, you will understand the difference between batteries even if they look the same.

What does AA or AAA mean?

The symbols are determined by the size of the dry-cell battery. The following sizes are available.

What is the difference between “best before” date and “manufacturing date”?

The “best before” date printed on dry batteries refers to the optimal performance guaranteed if you use the battery within this period. This limitation does not apply to rechargeable batteries, because nickel-metal hydride batteries can be used anytime if they are electrically charged. For reference, the “manufacturing date” is usually printed on the package of rechargeable batteries.

Which battery can be used below 0 ℃?

Generally speaking, temperature drops make chemical reactions weaker, so the battery lifespan will fall by 50-90%. However, lithium batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, and Ni-Cd batteries are stronger in colder temperatures than manganese batteries, so are suited for cameras and other devices often used outdoors.

What about connecting two or more batteries?

Do not mix batteries of different capacities, types, or brands. Also, do not mix dry and rechargeable batteries.
Finally, when using rechargeable batteries, ensure that all batteries were charged at the same time.

How is the voltage determined?

The voltage is determined by the selection of positive electrode materials and negative electrode materials. The difference between the electric potential of the positive electrode materials and the electric potential of the negative electrode materials make up the voltage. The electricity that flows from the battery can create five functions, and the device is operated by the electricity that flows to each device.

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Primary batteries Primary batteries

What is the difference between alkaline and manganese batteries?

Suitable for devices that use high continuous
current

Alkaline batteries produce higher current than manganese. This is because the electrolyte consists of potassium hydroxide, an alkaline-aqueous solution that enables a high flow of current.

For devices requiring a small current load, such as remote controllers

Dry batteries consist of three materials: metal, metal oxide, and electrolyte. Manganese dioxide is used for the positive electrode, zinc chloride for the electrolyte, and zinc for the negative electrode

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Rechargeable batteries Rechargeable batteries

What should I look out for when recharging batteries for the first time?

When you use a battery for the first time, or a battery that has been unused for a long period, it may not be necessarily charged fully. In this case, fully discharge and charge the battery 2-3 times.

What’s the difference between 1.5 V and 1.2 V?

1.5 V is the nominal voltage for dry batteries, and nickel-metal hydride batteries have a nominal voltage of 1.2 V. Dry batteries have a slightly higher voltage than the actual working voltage required by the appliance. Though the nickel-metal hydride battery is 1.2 V, nickel-metal hydride batteries are able to provide similar performance to standard dry batteries. Basically, almost all appliances that require a dry battery can also use Ni-MH battery. Please be aware, though, of exceptional cases where only dry batteries can be used.

Is it a fault if my batteries get hot while charging?

This is not a fault. It depends on the capacity of the rechargeable batteries and the charging conditions of the chargers, but both batteries and charger will generate heat. For rapid charging of high-capacity rechargeable batteries in particular, the rechargeable battery surface can reach around 55°C, but this is not a problem. Even if the batteries become even hotter for whatever reason, there will be a protector circuit within the charger to prevent any damage to the batteries or any safety issues.
However, you must never cover the charger with anything that would block off ventilation during charging, such as a cloth or plastic sheet. Doing so may lead to severe overheating or malfunctioning protector circuits. Also, you must never place the charger in direct contact with a heat source, such as a stove or radiator.

What is the “memory effect”?

If you repeatedly recharge Ni-Cd or nickel-metal hydride batteries before they run down, the batteries will “remember” that they are only used for short periods of time. The next time they are used, the voltage will drop immediately and they will be unable to power the device.

What is “refresh function”?

This function is to remove memory effect. It works by discharging the batteries first and then recharging the batteries to full capacity.

My equipment does not work. Why?

It may be due to the following:

• Cause 1: Batteries are not charged
In the event your charged battery cannot be used, it’s possible that the batteries were not charged properly or the batteries have self-discharged because they were kept in use for too long. Try charging them again.

 • Cause 2: The terminals may not be clean
Touching the battery with your fingers may leave dust or grime on the surface of positive and negative terminals. This causes the electrical resistance on the surface of the electrode to increase, which affects battery performance. If this happens, clean the terminals with a dry cloth.

 • Cause 3: Battery over-discharged
Appliances without an over-discharge prevention function can sometimes cause batteries to over-discharge. For example, use in a low-current-draw LED light until the battery runs out can cause it to over-discharge, and later the battery won’t recharge correctly. Recharging the battery 2-3 times can remedy this problem, but if it persists, unfortunately your battery’s life is at an end and we recommend seeking a replacement. Continuous over-discharging causes damage to the batteries. We recommend recharging the battery when you see signs of decreased performance, for example when luminous energy becomes low when used an LED light.

Can rechargeable batteries be used in underwater lights?

Please do not use Ni-MH batteries in underwater lights or other airtight appliances. Ni-MH batteries feature a gas vent that allows the release of hydrogen when the battery is misused. Gas will not be released under normal usage conditions, but hyper-electric discharge or short circuit can cause internal gas pressure to rise and gas to be expelled. This gas contains hydrogen and sealed devices can’t diffuse the gas, so any source of ignition may potentially cause fire.

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Others Others

When should I replace batteries?

Please refer to the symptoms in this chart. If the problem does not improve even when you insert new batteries, this may be a fault with the device and you should have it checked.

Where is best to store my batteries?

When storing dry batteries for long periods, do so in a cool place away from humidity.

Will batteries last longer if stored in the refrigerator?

It is always best to store batteries at low temperature and humidity. However, storing in refrigerators should be avoided as condensation on the battery when removed from the refrigerator may cause it to self-discharge and/or rust.