1. Each of us breathes in 18 kg of air a day.
2. That’s about 15 m³, or a sphere 3 meters in diameter.
3. We need our air to contain about 21% oxygen.
4. So we breathe about 3 m³ of oxygen per day.
5. When this oxygen enters the body, 1–2% is turned into radicals. Hydroxyl radicals are one type of radical.
6. Since 2% of the oxygen we breathe turns into radicals, 0.02 L × 0.02 = 0.0004 L, so 0.0004 L of radicals are produced by a single breath.
7. At a body temperature of 36˚C, the volume of radicals produced by a single breath is, according to Charles’s law, 0.0004 (L) ÷ (22.4 × (273.15 + 36) ÷ 273.15) × 6.02 × 1023 = 9.498 × 1018
8. The radicals produced in our bodies fight every day against bacteria that can cause illness.
9. By comparison, the volume of hydroxyl radicals generated by nanoeTM X in continuous operation is about 415 trillion per 24 hours.
10. The volume of hydroxyl radicals generated by nanoeTM X is 1/500,000th of the volume human beings produce by breathing.
Impact on chromosomes
Chromosome abnormality test using cultured cells
Japan Bioassay Research Center (Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant facility)
Impact on respiratory organs
Repeated administration toxicity test
Life Science Research Laboratory (Institution registered with the Cause Investigation Institution Network)
Toxicological and carcinogenic impact
Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity combined test
Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute (GLP-compliant facility)
Impact on DNA
Impact on male and female fertility and unborn children
Simplified reproductive toxicity test
nanoe™ X is nanoscale particle ions contained in water. Made from water. Safety tests are verified as below.