1. Each of us breathes in 18 kg of air a day.
2. That’s about 15 m³, or a sphere 3 meters in diameter.
3. We need our air to contain about 21% oxygen.
4. That’s about as much as is contained in 3 m³.
5. When this oxygen enters the body, 1–2% is turned into radicals. Hydroxyl radicals are one type of radical.
6. Since 2% of the oxygen we breathe turns into radicals, 0.02 L × 0.02 = 0.0004 L, so 0.0004 L of radicals are produced by a single breath.
7. At a body temperature of 36˚C, the volume of radicals produced by a single breath is, according to Charles’s law, 0.0004 (L) ÷ (22.4 × (273.15 + 36) ÷ 273.15) × 6.02 × 1023 = 9.498 × 1018
8. The radicals produced in our bodies fight every day against bacteria that can cause illness.
9. By comparison, the volume of hydroxyl radicals generated by nanoeTM X in continuous operation is about 415 trillion per 24 hours.
10. The volume of hydroxyl radicals generated by nanoeTM X is 1/500,000th of the volume human beings produce by breathing.
Impact on chromosomes
Chromosome abnormality test using cultured cells
Japan Bioassay Research Center*⁵ (Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant facility)
Impact on respiratory organs
Repeated administration toxicity test
Life Science Research Laboratory*⁶ (Institution registered with the Cause Investigation Institution Network)
Toxicological and carcinogenic impact
Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity combined test
Food and Drug Safety Center, Hatano Research Institute (GLP-compliant facility)
Impact on DNA
Impact on male and female fertility and unborn children
Simplified reproductive toxicity test
nanoeTM X is nanoscale particle ions encapsulated with water. The safety tests are verified as above.